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Diagnosis Interface
Cervical spinal cord injury All
  • Summary

    Basic Stats for These Cases
    Cases Mean SD Range
    70 11.02wpm 8.06 0.56 to 35.53

    The histogram below shows the distribution of text entry rate across these 70 cases. Click on a datapoint to view the abstract for its study.


    Basic Stats for These Groups
    Groups Mean SD Range Total N
    18 9.66wpm 5.74 2.52 to 8.82 250

    These are groups for which no individual data were reported, i.e., they are completely distinct from the cases reported and graphed above.

    The histogram below shows the distribution of text entry rate across these 18 groups.

  • Explore

    This section displays a variety of views of the retrieved data, including how text entry rate varies with interface, diagnosis, or body site, where applicable. Note: These graphs combine data from the individual cases and groups, so they reflect all of the retrieved data.

    Text Entry Rate by Interface. Shows average for each interface in the retrieved dataset.

    Text Entry Rate by Diagnosis. Shows average for each diagnosis in the retrieved dataset.

    Text Entry Rate by Body Site. Shows average for each body site in the retrieved dataset.

  • Individual Data. Each row is a case for a single subject in the dataset.

    Study Subject Age Gender Diagnosis Interface Body site Word prediction? TER (wpm)
    Koester 2007 64 39 M SCI_cervical physical_keyboard finger_unilateral N 4.94
    Koester 2007 64 39 M SCI_cervical physical_keyboard finger_unilateral N 5.30
    Koester 2007 64 39 M SCI_cervical physical_keyboard finger_unilateral N 6.65
    Wobbrock 2008 68 46 M SCI_cervical cursor_OSK hand_non_typing N 4.86
    Wobbrock 2008 68 46 M SCI_cervical other hand_non_typing N 5.61
    Wobbrock 2006 68 46 M SCI_cervical cursor_OSK hand_non_typing N 8.04
    Wobbrock 2006 68 46 M SCI_cervical cursor_OSK hand_non_typing Y 11.82
    Wobbrock 2006 68 46 M SCI_cervical other hand_non_typing N 8.22
    Wobbrock 2006 68 46 M SCI_cervical other hand_non_typing Y 12.09
    Koester 2015 147 62 M SCI_cervical physical_keyboard hand_with_CE N 7.70
    Koester 2015 147 62 M SCI_cervical physical_keyboard hand_with_CE N 9.50
    Pouplin 2014 143 44 M SCI_cervical cursor_OSK not_reported both 7.60
    Pouplin 2014 143 44 M SCI_cervical cursor_OSK not_reported both 2.70
    Pouplin 2014 144 49 M SCI_cervical cursor_OSK not_reported both 2.40
    Pouplin 2014 144 49 M SCI_cervical cursor_OSK not_reported both 1.50
    Koester 2007 65 24 M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard finger_bilateral N 10.98
    Koester 2004 24 46 M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard finger_unilateral N 14.70
    Koester 2004 27 24 M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard finger_unilateral N 12.80
    Koester 2004 40 31 F SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard fingers_bilateral N 10.70
    Koester 2007 65 24 M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard fingers_bilateral N 9.18
    Koester 2007 65 24 M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard fingers_bilateral N 9.32
    Koester 2004 32 59 M SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK hand_non_typing N 7.00
    Smith 2009 77 - - SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK hand_non_typing N 8.04
    Smith 2009 77 - - SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK hand_non_typing Y 8.28
    Smith 2009 78 - - SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK hand_non_typing N 8.64
    Smith 2009 78 - - SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK hand_non_typing Y 9.48
    Koester 2004 36 29 M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard hand_with_CE N 8.60
    Koester 2004 46 25 M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard hand_with_CE N 14.20
    Koester 2007 61 40 M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard hand_with_CE N 19.39
    Koester 2007 61 40 M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard hand_with_CE N 17.58
    Koester 2007 61 40 M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard hand_with_CE N 22.50
    Smith 1989 2 23 M SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK head Y 8.00
    Smith 1989 3 53 M SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK head Y 6.00
    Smith 1989 5 40 M SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK head Y 16.00
    Lau 1993 8 - M SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK head N 5.80
    Lau 1993 9 - M SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK head N 5.00
    DeVries 1998 11 25 M SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK head N 5.20
    Pires 2012 116 28 M SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK head N 1.44
    Levine 1986 1 - M SCI_high_cervical morse_code_2_switch mouth N 12.39
    Lau 1993 8 - M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard mouth N 11.20
    Lau 1993 9 - M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard mouth N 10.40
    DeVries 1998 11 25 M SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard mouth N 5.00
    Pouplin 2015 162 - - SCI_high_cervical physical_keyboard mouth N 12.60
    Lau 1993 8 - M SCI_high_cervical other tongue N 5.00
    Lau 1993 9 - M SCI_high_cervical other tongue N 2.80
    Blain 2010 104 20 F SCI_high_cervical scan_OSK tongue N 1.10
    Struijk 2017 188 56 F SCI_high_cervical other tongue N 1.50
    Struijk 2017 189 48 F SCI_high_cervical other tongue N 1.60
    Koester 2004 24 46 M SCI_high_cervical ASR voice N 31.70
    Koester 2004 27 24 M SCI_high_cervical ASR voice N 24.70
    Koester 2004 32 59 M SCI_high_cervical ASR voice N 18.10
    Koester 2004 36 29 M SCI_high_cervical ASR voice N 6.90
    Koester 2004 40 31 F SCI_high_cervical ASR voice N 16.00
    Koester 2004 41 24 M SCI_high_cervical ASR voice N 10.90
    Koester 2004 46 25 M SCI_high_cervical ASR voice N 32.20
    Pires 2012 116 28 M SCI_high_cervical BCI brain N 0.56
    Koester 2004 39 54 F SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard finger_unilateral N 3.70
    Koester 2007 56 48 M SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard finger_unilateral N 12.96
    Koester 2007 56 48 M SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard finger_unilateral N 13.04
    Koester 2007 56 48 M SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard finger_unilateral N 14.62
    Koester 2007 59 28 F SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard finger_unilateral N 34.55
    Koester 2007 59 28 F SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard finger_unilateral N 35.53
    Koester 2007 59 28 F SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard finger_unilateral N 32.38
    Smith 2009 76 - - SCI_low_cervical cursor_OSK hand_non_typing N 9.72
    Smith 2009 76 - - SCI_low_cervical cursor_OSK hand_non_typing Y 9.00
    Pouplin 2015 163 - - SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard hand_unspecified N 7.56
    Koester 2004 35 40 F SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard hand_with_CE N 17.90
    Koester 2004 35 40 F SCI_low_cervical ASR voice N 10.00
    Koester 2004 39 54 F SCI_low_cervical ASR voice N 11.10
    Pouplin 2015 161 - - SCI_low_cervical ASR voice N 17.00


    Group Data. Each row is a group of subjects that had no individual data reported.

    Study Diagnosis Interface Body site Word prediction? Sample size Avg TER (wpm) StdDev TER (wpm) Min TER (wpm) Max TER (wpm)
    Koester 1996 SCI_cervical physical_keyboard various N 6 23.20 6.80 - -
    Koester 1996 SCI_cervical physical_keyboard various Y 6 14.20 3.90 - -
    Sears 2001 SCI_cervical ASR voice N 7 11.61 6.78 - -
    Pouplin 2015 SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK head N 6 3.78 0.93 2.52 8.82
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK chin N 9 3.30 2.80 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK chin Y 9 3.00 2.60 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK chin Y 9 3.20 2.20 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK chin Y 9 3.60 2.80 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK head N 6 6.74 1.20 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK head Y 6 6.80 1.20 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK head Y 6 6.80 1.80 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK head Y 6 6.60 0.80 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_high_cervical cursor_OSK various Y 15 6.88 4.00 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard hands_unspecified N 30 13.80 7.20 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard hands_unspecified Y 30 10.62 3.80 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard hands_unspecified Y 30 10.24 3.80 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard hands_unspecified Y 30 10.14 3.40 - -
    Pouplin 2016 SCI_low_cervical physical_keyboard hands_unspecified Y 30 11.96 4.20 - -
  • The list below shows all studies in the dataset that match your search criteria.

    • A comparison of Mouthstick and Morse code text inputs Levine S, Gauger J, Bowers L, Khan K. (1986) Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 2(2), 51-55. Show abstract
    • Effectiveness of a writing system using a computerized long-range optical pointer and 10-branch abbreviation expansion Smith R, Christiaansen R, Borden B, Lindberg D, Gunderson J, Vanderheiden G. (1989) Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 26(1), 51-62. Show abstract
    • Comparison of Computer Interface Devices for Persons With Severe Physical Disabilities Lau C, O'Leary S. (1993) American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 47(11), 1022-1030. Show abstract
    • A Comparison of Two Computer Access Systems for Functional Text Entry DeVries R, Deitz J, Anson D. (1998) American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52(8), 656-665. Show abstract
    • Usage, performance, and satisfaction outcomes for experienced users of automatic speech recognition Koester H. (2004) Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 41(5), 739-754. Show abstract
    • From Letters to Words: Efficient Stroke-based Word Completion for Trackball Text Entry Wobbrock J, Myers B. (2006) Proceedings of the 8th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, 2-9. Show abstract
    • Toward automatic adjustment of keyboard settings for people with physical impairments Koester H, LoPresti E, Simpson R. (2007) Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 2(5), 261-274. Show abstract
    • Enabling devices, empowering people: The design and evaluation of Trackball EdgeWrite Wobbrock J, Myers B. (2008) Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 3(1-2), 35-56. Show abstract
    • Analyzing performance with computer access technology using unconstrained text entry protocol Mankowski J, Simpson R. (2009) Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 46(8), 1059-1068. Show abstract
    • Bedside computer access for an individual with severe and multiple disabilities: a case study Blain S, McKeever P, Chau T. (2010) Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 5(5), 359-369. Show abstract
    • Comparison of a row-column speller vs. a novel lateral single-character speller: Assessment of BCI for severe motor disabled patients Pires G, Nunes U, Castelo-Branco M. (2012) Clinical Neurophysiology, 123(6), 1168-1181. Show abstract
    • Effect of dynamic keyboard and word-prediction systems on text input speed in persons with functional tetraplegia Pouplin S, Robertson J, Antoine J, Blanchet A, Kahloun J, Volle P, Bouteille J, Lofaso F, Bensmail D. (2014) Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 51(3), 467-79. Show abstract
    • Automatic adjustment of keyboard settings can enhance typing Koester H, Mankowski J. (2015) Assistive Technology, 27(3), 136-146. Show abstract
    • Text input speed in persons with cervical spinal cord injury Pouplin S, Roche N, Vaugier I, Cabanilles S, Hugeron C, Bensmail D. (2015) Spinal Cord, 54(2), 158-162. Show abstract
    • Error-Free Text Typing Performance of an Inductive Intra-Oral Tongue Computer Interface for Severely Disabled Individuals Struijk L, Bentsen B, Gaihede M, Lontis E. (2017) IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 25(11), 2094-2104. Show abstract
    • Effect of a word prediction feature on user performance Koester H, Levine S. (1996) AAC: Augmentative & Alternative Communication, 12(3), 155-168. Show abstract
    • Productivity, satisfaction, and interaction strategies of individuals with spinal cord injuries and traditional users interacting with speech recognition software Sears A, Karat C, Oseitutu K, Karimullah A, Feng J. (2001) Universal Access in the information Society, 1(1), 4-15. Show abstract
    • Influence of the Number of Predicted Words on Text Input Speed in Participants With Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Pouplin S, Roche N, Vaugier I, Jacob A, Figere M, Pottier S, Antoine J, Bensmail D. (2016) Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 97(2), 259-265. Show abstract
    • The effect of word prediction settings (frequency of use) on text input speed in persons with cervical spinal cord injury: a prospective study Pouplin S, Roche N, Antoine J, Vaugier I, Pottier S, Figere M, Bensmail D. (2016) Disability and Rehabilitation, 39(12), 1215-1220. Show abstract

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